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English Wikipedia has an article on: Foote, editor, Oxford Slavonic Papers. Maimanto , as they say a sea elephant which is never seene, but accordinge to the Samuites he workes himselfe under grownde and so they finde his teeth or homes or bones in Pechore and Nova Zemla of which they [ … ].
Clarendon Press, published , A. Muscovy into China, page The Mammotovoy , which is dug out of the Earth in Siberia. The old Siberian Russians affirm that the Mammuth is very like the Elephant.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus , one of the many genera that make up the order of trunked mammals called proboscideans.
The various species of mammoth were commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
They were members of the family Elephantidae , which also contains the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors.
The oldest representative of Mammuthus , the South African mammoth M. Descendant species of these mammoths moved north and continued to propagate into numerous subsequent species, eventually covering most of Eurasia before extending into the Americas at least , years ago.
The last species to emerge, the woolly mammoth M. The earliest known proboscideans , the clade that contains the elephants, existed about 55 million years ago around the Tethys Sea area.
The closest relatives of the Proboscidea are the sirenians and the hyraxes. The family Elephantidae is known to have existed six million years ago in Africa, and includes the living elephants and the mammoths.
Among many now extinct clades, the mastodon is only a distant relative of the mammoths, and part of the separate Mammutidae family, which diverged 25 million years before the mammoths evolved.
The following cladogram shows the placement of the genus Mammuthus among other proboscideans, based on hyoid characteristics: Since many remains of each species of mammoth are known from several localities, it is possible to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus through morphological studies.
Mammoth species can be identified from the number of enamel ridges on their molars; the primitive species had few ridges, and the amount increased gradually as new species evolved and replaced the former ones.
At the same time, the crowns of the teeth became longer, and the skulls become higher from top to bottom and shorter from the back to the front over time to accommodate this.
The first known members of the genus Mammuthus are the African species Mammuthus subplanifrons from the Pliocene and Mammuthus africanavus from the Pleistocene.
The former is thought to be the ancestor of later forms. Mammoths entered Europe around 3 million years ago; the earliest known type has been named M.
Only its molars are known, which show it had 8—10 enamel ridges. A population evolved 12—14 ridges and split off from and replaced the earlier type, becoming M.
In turn, this species was replaced by the steppe mammoth, M. Mammoths derived from M. A genetic study showed that two examined specimens of the Columbian mammoth were grouped within a subclade of woolly mammoths.
This suggests that the two populations interbred and produced fertile offspring. It also suggested that a North American form known as " M. By the late Pleistocene, mammoths in continental Eurasia had undergone a major transformation, including a shortening and heightening of the cranium and mandible, increase in molar hypsodonty index, increase in plate number, and thinning of dental enamel.
Due to this change in physical appearance, it became customary to group European mammoths separately into distinguishable clusters:. There is speculation as to what caused this variation within the three chronospecies.
Variations in environment, climate change, and migration surely played roles in the evolutionary process of the mammoths.
Woolly mammoths lived in opened grassland biomes. The cool steppe-tundra of the Northern Hemisphere was the ideal place for mammoths to thrive because of the resources it supplied.
With occasional warmings during the ice age, climate would change the landscape, and resources available to the mammoths altered accordingly.
The word mammoth was first used in Europe during the early 17th century, when referring to maimanto tusks discovered in Siberia. Some local people claimed to have seen a living mammoth, but they only came out at night and always disappeared under water when detected.
The folklore of some native peoples of Siberia, who would routinely find mammoth bones, and sometimes frozen mammoth bodies, in eroding river banks, had various interesting explanations for these finds.
Among the Khanty people of the Irtysh River basin, a belief existed that the mammoth was some kind of a water spirit. According to other Khanty, the mammoth was a creature that lived underground, burrowing its tunnels as it went, and would die if it accidentally came to the surface.
Thomas Jefferson , who famously had a keen interest in paleontology , is partially responsible for transforming the word mammoth from a noun describing the prehistoric elephant to an adjective describing anything of surprisingly large size.
The first recorded use of the word as an adjective was in a description of a large wheel of cheese the " Cheshire Mammoth Cheese " given to Jefferson in Like their modern relatives, mammoths were quite large.
However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian elephant which are about 2. Both sexes bore tusks. A first, small set appeared at about the age of six months, and these were replaced at about 18 months by the permanent set.
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